This study qualifies as minimal psychological and emotional risk since there was no greater than those encountered by the participant in those aspects of his or her everyday life that relate to the research. Participants have the right to refuse and submit their answers without suffering any negative consequence. Perspective participants were not required to disclose any personal information, only information from their field of practice was included in this study. All participants volunteered to participate in the research study and were allowed to withdraw the entire study at any point in the research. Participants were allowed to send an email with a request to withdraw the study, or withdraw answers; this was allowed at any point in the study even after providing answers. According to participant requests all data provided from participants request collected for this research would be deleted from files.
The nature for this research is of qualitative deductive method. The research design chosen is descriptive analysis due to the purpose of this study in order to analyze the current educators in child care centres. The methodology of qualitative study is appropriate for this research project as it helps explore the concept of storytelling and develops a detailed understanding of a central phenomenon of educators using storytelling as a technique for language skills development in young children (Creswell, 2012). According to Creswell (2012), qualitative research is best suited to address a research problem in which you do not know the variables and need to explore the factors relating to the central phenomenon. The central phenomenon for this research study is storytelling methods used as techniques and strategies. It will be looked as an approach used by RECE’s to develop language skills in young children.
The instruments used for the purpose of this research study qualitative data was collected through video recorded observations and follow-up semi-structured interviews. The time allocated for recorded observations is approximately (20-30 min). The video recorded observation method was used to observe RECE’s during the implementation of storytelling. Video observations were found useful for the qualitative researcher in Early Childhood settings where evidence from the setting was collected and analyzed inductively (MacNaughton, Rolfe, & Siraj-Blatchford, 2001). The recorded video observations allowed researcher to analyze the data in more depth looking upon the emotional aspects, language skills, presentation strategies, and behaviour of the RECE’s when implementing storytelling to young children (MacNaughton, Rolfe, & Siraj-Blatchford, 2001). Following the observations, a semi-structured interview was conducted with RECE’s only. The follow-up interview allowed the researcher to explore the meanings behind evidence documented during the video recorded observations (MacNaughton, Rolfe, & Siraj-Blatchford, 2001). The interview questions started broadly and then focused narrowing to the research issues and filled in the gaps that emerged in the case being explored (MacNaughton, Rolfe, & Siraj-Blatchford, 2001). The process of semi-structured interviews helped and guided this research study where researcher used the data collected in the interview to make connection with literature, explored interpretations of the data, and created tentative links between observations to increase the understanding of the case being studied (MacNaughton, Rolfe, & Siraj-Blatchford, 2001). One common feature found in qualitative research is an ethical concern for those whose video observations and experiences through interviews are being represented (MacNaughton, Rolfe, & Siraj-Blatchford, 2001). The collected data was coded and analyzed using NVivo qualitative research software. For the purpose of this research to eliminate ethical issues all participants were provided with information regarding the research, consent forms and media release forms prior to collecting any data (See Appendix C) to allow permission to use the results only for the sole purpose of this research study and exclude the use of names when reporting the results (Cohen, Manion, & Morrison, 2007). Although both qualitative and quantitative research study data collections have similar approaches such as interviews and observations, the qualitative method provides a more open-ended response which is more suitable for the purpose of this research to explore the factors involving in storytelling strategies (Creswell, 2012).
Data Collection Procedure
The data was collected at the centre’s site for the convenience of RECE’s working hours and availability. During this time many RECE’s refused to fully complete the interview or discontinue their observations, this was respected and all the results from such data were excluded from the final sample (Creswell, 2012). During the meeting the researcher scheduled a convenient time and place where educator would like to be video recorded observed and interviewed. The RECE’s were given the email and contact information in order to arrange or reschedule in-case of any difficulties in scheduling the best time. The instruments used for the purpose of this research study were video recorded observation methods and follow-up semi-structured interviews. The time allocated for observations is approximately (20-30 min). The semi-structure interviews were face-to-face which was anticipated to be approximately 10-15 minutes long. The data collected during the recorded observations and follow-up interviews was in qualitative nature with detailed notes. For the purpose of this research only RECE’s were recorded during the observations, the camera was set up by the researcher to enable that only RECE participants are captured in the video footage. The instrument method used for the purpose of this research is video recorded observations method where the implementation of storytelling recorded and individually analyzed reflecting on themes discovered in the research study. The method of video observations also allowed the researcher to further investigate how RECE’s implement storytelling on a day-to-day basis. The questions asked through the follow-up interview allowed responses that supported the video recorded observations and were measured according to the themes already formed prior in the literature review. The focus of the interview questions were on the topic of strategies and skills educators use during the implementation of storytelling (MacNaughton, Rolfe, & Siraj-Blatchford, 2001). The purpose of qualitative research is to gather data that can be analyzed to describe the central phenomenon under the study (Cohen, Manion, & Morrison, 2007). All the interview responses were collected and the data was presented through a template of transcribed interviews. All the semi-structured interviews were completed in a narrative method and recorded using video camera, then later transcribed for convenience when analyzing data collections. Qualitative research study is a flexible report that provides excessive data results to convey a complex phenomenon with analysis reflecting on themes that are at times interrelated (Creswell, 2012). The coded semi-structured follow-up interviews allowed researcher and the RECE’s to question for further information, ask for elaboration, and clarification of responses while maintaining an opportunity for openness to the participant’s responses (Creswell, 2012). The coded data helped to determine RECEs’ skills and strategies while implementing storytelling for the holistic language development in young children. The data instrument of semi-structured follow-up interviews and video observations method provided an open-ended approach to qualitative research whereas, quantitative research would be more closed-ended approach in which research would identify set responses in categories for example agree or disagree (Creswell, 2012).
This study took place in child care centres with 6 registered Early Childhood Educators (RECE). Prospective participants were asked to participate in video observations and semi-structured interviews. All participants, who demonstrated interest in the study, were provided with an information letter, consent, and media release form to assure their understanding of the nature of this research study (Cohen, Manion, & Morrison, 2007). This size of sample was chosen to determine the views of ECE’s in the community and the choice of implementation of storytelling being used in programs. The approach used for this research study is purposeful qualitative sampling which outlines selected people who can best help us understand our phenomenon and develop detailed understanding of our research topic (Creswell, 2012, p. 382). The purposeful qualitative sampling allows the research to have data that may provide useful information, help people to learn about the phenomenon, and give voice to the “silenced” people (Creswell, 2012, p. 382).
The collected data will be coded and analyzed using NVivo ™ qualitative research software. The process of data analysis through descriptive analysis qualitative design first collects data [See Appendix C], then transcribes the notes (preparing data for analysis), reading through the data to obtain general meaning of the material, placing the data into text segments by labeling them with codes, last step in finally using the coded data text for themes and descriptions for the purpose of the final research report (Creswell, 2012). In order to analyze the data collected all the results were organized based on the themes of the guiding research questions. In the qualitative research method all the data collected was divided into groups of sentences referred to as text segments (Creswell, 2012). The groups of sentences were arranged according to their importance and the analysis process is to determine the meaning of each group of sentences. Qualitative research method allowed the data collected in sentences to be presented in a detailed description of the results, whereas quantitative method would be using statistics to support their study (Creswell, 2012).